|Human Development El Desarrollo Humano|
|| Identity Formation
Miguel Molla, (Psychologist and Psychotherapist)
Erik Erikson (1902-1989), was a prominent professor of Human Development at Harvard University, postulated that it is important to have a theory of human development that attempts to approach the phenomena from which and to discover where they develop, and postulates the development of personal identity.
This identity is as an affirmation, a feeling of be alive and active, be yourself, energizing active and confident of sustaining what is proper to me, is a statement that expresses a unity of personal and cultural identity.
These two levels, the personal identity and cultural identity, interact during development and are integrated to achieve a complete unit when successfully accomplished this development.
In fact, this author wrote several works on development from an evolutionary point of view, development in which both the biological conjunction with psychological and social in a process that is located both in the core of the individual as the core of communal culture.
Identity is given as the result of three processes: biological, psychological and social, which are in continuous interaction of all parties and governed by a relativity that makes every process to depend on others: "physiology of living" and in particular psychological and social process together in a single relativity psychosocial:
"When considering the identity crisis we can not separate the identity of individual life and contemporary crises in historical development, because some other help to define each other and are interrelated. In fact, the whole interplay between the psychological and social, regarding the individual and the historical development, for which the formation of identity is a prototypical significance could only be conceptualized as a kind of relativity psichosocia1. "
In this relativity of the processes, the environment is defined not so much the outside world, or world of objects but following the ethologists to use the word UNWELT as a reality that not only surrounds us but is also within us.
The identity reflects the content and problems between the individual and society. The GESTALT or identity formation reflects the grouping of elements representing the social forces within the individual as well as the identity in a way explains how to build the values that shape the culture. Therefore, in analyzing the problems of education and society, we clearly see a background of the issue of personal and social identity.
...for we deal with a process"located" in the core of the individual and yet also in the core of his communal culture, a process wich establishes, in fact, the identity of those two identities. If we should now pause and state a few minimun requirements for fathoming the complexity of identity we should have to begin by saying like this...in psychological terms, identity formation employs a process of simultaneos reflection and observation, a process taking place on all levels of mental functioning, by wich the individual judges himself in the light of what he perceives to be the way in wich others judge him in comparision to themselves and to a typology significant to them; he judges their way of judging him in the light of how he perceives himself in comparision to them and to types that have become relevant to him.
...In fact, the whole interplay between the psychological and the social, the development and historical, for wich identity formation is of prototypal significance, could be conceptualized only as a kind of psychosocial relativity....
The traditional psychoanalitic method on the other hand, cannot quite grasp identity because it has not develop terms to conceptualize the enviroment. Certain habits of psychoanalytic theorizing, habits of designating the enviroment as "outer world" or "object world," cannot take account of the enviroment a a pervasive actuality. the German ethologist introduced the word "UNWELT" to denote not merely an enviroment wich surrounds you, but wich is also in you. And indeed, from the point of view of development, "former" environments are forever in us; and since we live in a continuous process of making the present "former" we never meet any environment as a person who never had an environment.
"... We can reformulate the task of the ego (and perhaps of the self), recognizing it as one of three essential processes and incessant why the existence of man becomes and remains uninterrupted in time and organized in relation to how . The first of these three processes ... is the biological process by which an organism becomes a hierarchical organization of organ systems that have a life cycle.
The second is the social process by which organisms reach into groups that are geographically, historically and culturally defined. The process can be called the self is the organizing principle according to which the individual remains a coherent personality because it has sameness and continuity in his own experience as your reality for others.. Although these processes have been studied by different disciplines have focused alternately on the biological, social or psychological, should be obvious that the "physiology" of living, ie the continuous interaction of all parties, is governed by a relativity that causes each process to depend on others. This means that the observed changes in one of these three processes will cause changes in others and will themselves be influenced by them.
1 Erikson Erik Erikson,:"Identity youth and crisis", New York, Norton &Company, 1968. pp22-25
|Problemática de Formación
de la Identidad
Miguel Molla, (Psicólogo y Psicoterapeuta)
Erik Erikson, (1902-1989), fue un notable profesor de Desarrollo Humano de la Universidad de Harvard, postuló que es importante tener una teoría del desarrollo humano que intente aproximarse a los fenómenos descubriendo desde donde y hacia donde se desarrollan, y postula el desarrollo de la identidad personal.